Next Article in Journal
Further Characterization of Glycine-Containing Microcystins from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica
Previous Article in Journal
Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toxin ζ Reversible Induces Dormancy and Reduces the UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Pool as One of the Protective Responses to Cope with Stress
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 478-492; doi:10.3390/toxins7020478

Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Infection Biology, C/ Ramiro de Maéztu 9, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas-CSIC, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laurence Van Melderen
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 17 December 0214 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antitoxin System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [846 KB, uploaded 5 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number. It is thought that Kis antitoxin levels decrease in these cells and that this acts as the switch that activates the Kid toxin; activated Kid toxin reduces copB-mRNA levels and this increases RepA levels that increases plasmid copy number. In support of this model we now report that: (i) the Kis antitoxin levels do decrease in cells containing a mini-R1 plasmid carrying a repA mutation that reduces plasmid copy number; (ii) kid-dependent replication rescue is abolished in cells in which the Kis antitoxin levels or the CopB levels are increased. Unexpectedly we found that this coordination significantly increases both the copy number of the repA mutant and of the wt mini-R1 plasmid. This indicates that the coordination between plasmid replication functions and kis-kid system contributes significantly to control plasmid R1 replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasmid R1; plasmid replication and copy number control; parD (kis-kid) antitoxin-toxin system; Kis antitoxin; ClpAP protease; transcriptional regulation; CopB repressor; coupling plasmid maintenance systems plasmid R1; plasmid replication and copy number control; parD (kis-kid) antitoxin-toxin system; Kis antitoxin; ClpAP protease; transcriptional regulation; CopB repressor; coupling plasmid maintenance systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

López-Villarejo, J.; Lobato-Márquez, D.; Díaz-Orejas, R. Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication. Toxins 2015, 7, 478-492.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top