Next Article in Journal
Coupling between the Basic Replicon and the Kis-Kid Maintenance System of Plasmid R1: Modulation by Kis Antitoxin Levels and Involvement in Control of Plasmid Replication
Next Article in Special Issue
The Importance of Lake Sediments as a Pathway for Microcystin Dynamics in Shallow Eutrophic Lakes
Previous Article in Journal
Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0
Previous Article in Special Issue
Human Illnesses and Animal Deaths Associated with Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms—Kansas
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 457-477; doi:10.3390/toxins7020457

Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms

Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, 800 NE Oregon Street, Suite 640, Portland, OR 97232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lesley V. D'Anglada
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [634 KB, uploaded 5 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon’s fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins). OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM) programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxins; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; saxitoxins; drinking water; recreational water cyanotoxins; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; saxitoxins; drinking water; recreational water
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Farrer, D.; Counter, M.; Hillwig, R.; Cude, C. Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms. Toxins 2015, 7, 457-477.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top