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Toxins 2015, 7(12), 5337-5347; doi:10.3390/toxins7124885

New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4619-007 Porto, Portugal
2
Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research–CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
4
University of Madeira, Marine Biology Station of Funchal, 9000-107 Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal
5
Center of Interdisciplinary Marine and Environmental Research of Madeira—CIIMAR-Madeira, Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
6
Department of Marine Biology, University of Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal
7
Phycology Research Unit—Biotechnology, Ecosystems Ecology and Valorization Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences El Jadida, University Chouaib Doukkali, BP20 El Jadida, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irina Vetter
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract

Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. View Full-Text
Keywords: okadaic acid; new vectors; Madeira Island; São Miguel Island; Morocco okadaic acid; new vectors; Madeira Island; São Miguel Island; Morocco
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, M.; Rodriguez, I.; Barreiro, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Neto, A.I.; Hassouani, M.; Sabour, B.; Alfonso, A.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco. Toxins 2015, 7, 5337-5347.

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