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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4595-4609; doi:10.3390/toxins7114595

Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

1,2,* , 1,2,†
and
2,3,†
1
Laboratorio de Micología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, Bernal, Buenos Aires 1876, Argentina
2
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires 1033, Argentina
3
Escuela de Producción, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Mitre 331, Villa Regina 8336, Río Negro, Argentina
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Deepak Bhatnagar and Richard A. Manderville
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [218 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; fish feed; Oncorhynchus mykiss; mycobiota; mycotoxins aquaculture; fish feed; Oncorhynchus mykiss; mycobiota; mycotoxins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Greco, M.; Pardo, A.; Pose, G. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds. Toxins 2015, 7, 4595-4609.

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