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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4253-4282; doi:10.3390/toxins7104253

Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data

1
Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
2
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Well-Being, University of Sunderland, City Campus, Sunderland SR1 3SD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [491 KB, uploaded 22 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by a variety of moulds. Ochratoxin A (OTA), the most prominent member of this toxin family, was first described by van der Merwe et al. in Nature in 1965. Dietary exposure to OTA represents a serious health issue and has been associated with several human and animal diseases including poultry ochratoxicosis, porcine nephropathy, human endemic nephropathies and urinary tract tumours in humans. More than 30 years ago, OTA was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents and since then extensive research has been performed in order to investigate its mode of action, however, this is still under debate. OTA is regarded as the most toxic family member, however, other ochratoxins or their metabolites and, in particular, ochratoxin mixtures or combinations with other mycotoxins may represent serious threats to human and animal health. This review summarises and evaluates current knowledge about the differential and comparative toxicity of the ochratoxin group. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin; biosynthesis; metabolites; detection; comparative toxicity ochratoxin; biosynthesis; metabolites; detection; comparative toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Heussner, A.H.; Bingle, L.E.H. Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data. Toxins 2015, 7, 4253-4282.

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