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Toxins 2016, 8(2), 40; doi:10.3390/toxins8020040

Teratogenicity of Ochratoxin A and the Degradation Product, Ochratoxin α, in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model of Vertebrate Development

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151ST Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA
2
Chaplin School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151ST Street, North Miami, FL 33181; USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [405 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Ochratoxins, and particularly ochratoxin A (OTA), are toxic fungal-derived contaminants of food and other agricultural products. Growing evidence supports the degradation of OTA by chemical, enzymatic and/or microbial means as a potential approach to remove this mycotoxin from food products. In particular, hydrolysis of OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) and phenylalanine is the presumptive product of degradation in most cases. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development to evaluate, the teratogenicity of OTA and OTα. These studies show that OTA is potently active in the zebrafish embryo toxicity assay (ZETA), and that toxicity is both concentration- and time-dependent with discernible and quantifiable developmental toxicity observed at nanomolar concentrations. On the other hand, OTα had no significant effect on embryo development at all concentrations tested supporting a decreased toxicity of this degradation product. Taken together, these results suggest that ZETA is a useful, and highly sensitive, tool for evaluating OTA toxicity, as well as its degradation products, toward development of effective detoxification strategies. Specifically, the results obtained with ZETA, in the present study, further demonstrate the toxicity of OTA, and support its degradation via hydrolysis to OTα as an effective means of detoxification. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; ochratoxin α; teratogenicity; zebrafish; detoxification mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; ochratoxin α; teratogenicity; zebrafish; detoxification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haq, M.; Gonzalez, N.; Mintz, K.; Jaja-Chimedza, A.; De Jesus, C.L.; Lydon, C.; Welch, A.Z.; Berry, J.P. Teratogenicity of Ochratoxin A and the Degradation Product, Ochratoxin α, in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model of Vertebrate Development. Toxins 2016, 8, 40.

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