Next Article in Journal
HGT-Finder: A New Tool for Horizontal Gene Transfer Finding and Application to Aspergillus genomes
Previous Article in Journal
Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4023-4034; doi:10.3390/toxins7104023

Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

1
College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 6 October 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [719 KB, uploaded 9 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Rice false smut has become an increasingly serious fungal disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins previously isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. To investigate the main ustilaginoidins and their distribution in rice FSBs, five main bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), I (4) and C (5), were isolated and identified by NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as by comparison with the data in the literature. The rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages were divided into their different parts and the contents of five main ustilaginoidins for each part were determined by HPLC analysis. The results revealed that the highest levels of ustilaginoidins were in late stage rice FSBs, followed by those at middle stage. Most ustilaginoidins, 96.4% of the total quantity, were distributed in the middle layer at early stage. However, ustilaginoidins were mainly distributed in the outer and middle layers at middle and late stages. Small amounts of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) were found in the inner part of rice FSBs at each maturity stage. The contents of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) without hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 and C-2’ of the γ-pyrone rings in rice FSBs were relatively high at early stage, while the contents of ustilaginoidins B (3), I (4), and C (5) with hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 or C-2’ were relatively high at late stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: ustilaginoidins; mycotoxin; phytotoxin; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC ustilaginoidins; mycotoxin; phytotoxin; rice false smut balls; Villosiclava virens; Ustilaginoidea virens; HPLC
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Meng, J.; Sun, W.; Mao, Z.; Xu, D.; Wang, X.; Lu, S.; Lai, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, G. Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls. Toxins 2015, 7, 4023-4034.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top