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Comment published on 31 May 2016, see Toxins 2016, 8(6), 166.

Reply published on 31 May 2016, see Toxins 2016, 8(6), 167.

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 3858-3875; doi:10.3390/toxins7103858

Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

The multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and ITS gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. Chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by Microascus trigonosporus (12%) and Alternaria alternata (9%). With respect to superficial mycobiota, thirty-four species belonging to 17 genera were detected. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium polonicum were predominant (12% and 15%, respectively). Medicinal seed samples and potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) using UPLC-MS/MS. Platycladi seeds were contaminated with AFB1 (52.0 µg/kg) and tangerine seed was contaminated with OTA (92.3 µg/kg). Subsequent analysis indicated that one A. flavus strain isolated from platycladi seed was able to synthesize AFB1 (102.0 µg/kg) and AFB2 (15.3 µg/kg). Two P. polonicum strains isolated from tangerine and lychee seeds were able to synthesize OTA (4.1 µg/kg and 14.8 µg/kg, respectively). These results identify potential sources of OTA and aflatoxins in medicinal seeds and allude to the need to establish permitted limits for these mycotoxins in these seeds that are commonly consumed by humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal seeds; mycobiota; UPLC-MS/MS; aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; mycotoxigenic fungi medicinal seeds; mycobiota; UPLC-MS/MS; aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; mycotoxigenic fungi
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, A.J.; Jiao, X.; Hu, Y.; Lu, X.; Gao, W. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China. Toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875.

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