Next Article in Journal
Genetic Relationships, Carbendazim Sensitivity and Mycotoxin Production of the Fusarium Graminearum Populations from Maize, Wheat and Rice in Eastern China
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage
Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2270-2290; doi:10.3390/toxins6082270
Article

Sub-Emetic Toxicity of Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide on Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Caco-2 Cells

1,* , 2
, 3
, 2
, 2
, 2
, 4
, 1
, 3 and 5
1 Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Food Preservation, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium 2 Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Human Nutrition, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium 3 Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Zagreb University, Zagreb HR-10000, Croatia 4 Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent B-9000, Belgium 5 Laboratory for System Biomedicine and Centre for Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry, "Ruđer Bošković" Institute, Zagreb HR-10000, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1084 KB, uploaded 4 August 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Cereulide (CER) intoxication occurs at relatively high doses of 8 µg/kg body weight. Recent research demonstrated a wide prevalence of low concentrations of CER in rice and pasta dishes. However, the impact of exposure to low doses of CER has not been studied before. In this research, we investigated the effect of low concentrations of CER on the behavior of intestinal cells using the Caco-2 cell line. The MTT (mitochondrial 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and the SRB (sulforhodamine B) reactions were used to measure the mitochondrial activity and cellular protein content, respectively. Both assays showed that differentiated Caco-2 cells were sensitive to low concentrations of CER (in a MTT reaction of 1 ng/mL after three days of treatment; in an SRB reaction of 0.125 ng/mL after three days of treatment). Cell counts revealed that cells were released from the differentiated monolayer at 0.5 ng/mL of CER. Additionally, 0.5 and 2 ng/mL of CER increased the lactate presence in the cell culture medium. Proteomic data showed that CER at a concentration of 1 ng/mL led to a significant decrease in energy managing and H2O2 detoxification proteins and to an increase in cell death markers. This is amongst the first reports to describe the influence of sub-emetic concentrations of CER on a differentiated intestinal monolayer model showing that low doses may induce an altered enterocyte metabolism and membrane integrity.
Keywords: Bacillus cereus; cereulide; emetic toxin; doses; cell; toxicity; differentiated Caco-2 Bacillus cereus; cereulide; emetic toxin; doses; cell; toxicity; differentiated Caco-2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Rajkovic, A.; Grootaert, C.; Butorac, A.; Cucu, T.; De Meulenaer, B.; van Camp, J.; Bracke, M.; Uyttendaele, M.; Bačun-Družina, V.; Cindrić, M. Sub-Emetic Toxicity of Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide on Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Caco-2 Cells. Toxins 2014, 6, 2270-2290.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert