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Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2291-2309; doi:10.3390/toxins6082291

Genetic Relationships, Carbendazim Sensitivity and Mycotoxin Production of the Fusarium Graminearum Populations from Maize, Wheat and Rice in Eastern China

Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province—State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro-product Safety and Quality (Nanjing), Ministry of Agriculture; Key Lab of Agro-product Safety Risk Evaluation (Nanjing), Ministry of Agriculture; Institute of Food Quality and Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, Jiangsu, China
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Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are important pathogens on wheat, maize, barley, and rice in China. Harvested grains are often contaminated by mycotoxins, such as the trichothecene nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN), which is a big threat to humans and animals. In this study, 97 isolates were collected from maize, wheat, and rice in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 2013 and characterized by species- and chemotype-specific PCR. F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) was predominant on maize, while most of the isolates collected from rice and wheat were identified as F. asiaticum. Fusarium isolates from three hosts varied in trichothecene chemotypes. The 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype predominated on wheat and rice population, while 15ADON was prevailing in the remaining isolates. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1α and trichodiene synthase indicated the accuracy of the above conclusion. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggested four groups with strong correlation with species, chemotype, and host. These isolates were also evaluated for their sensitivity to carbendazim and mycotoxins production. The maize population was less sensitive than the other two. The DON levels were similar in three populations, while those isolates on maize produced more ZEN. More DON was produced in carbendazim resistant strains than sensitive ones, but it seemed that carbendazim resistance had no effect on ZEN production in wheat culture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; trichothecene chemotype; genetics relationships; mycotoxin production; carbendazim resistance Fusarium graminearum; trichothecene chemotype; genetics relationships; mycotoxin production; carbendazim resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Qiu, J.; Shi, J. Genetic Relationships, Carbendazim Sensitivity and Mycotoxin Production of the Fusarium Graminearum Populations from Maize, Wheat and Rice in Eastern China. Toxins 2014, 6, 2291-2309.

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