Next Article in Journal
Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulation of cry Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis
Previous Article in Journal
Tailored Cyclodextrin Pore Blocker Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of Distinct Bacillus thuringiensis 4A4 Nematicidal Factors Using the Model Nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2014, 6(7), 2115-2126; doi:10.3390/toxins6072115

Toxicity of Parasporin-4 and Health Effects of Pro-parasporin-4 Diet in Mice

1
Biotechnology and Food Research Institute, Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center, 1465-5 Aikawa, Kurume, Fukuoka 839-0861, Japan
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan
3
Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1126 KB, uploaded 16 July 2014]   |  

Abstract

Parasporin-4 (PS4) is an aerolysin-type β-pore-forming toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1470. It exhibits specific cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines; therefore, it is expected to be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of particular types of cancer cells. We examined the acute toxicity of PS4 on ICR mice. The LD50 value was 160 μg/kg by a subcutaneous route. Potassium, ammonium, magnesium ion, creatinine, and urea nitrogen decreased in urine by the injection of PS4. Simultaneously, creatinine and urea nitrogen in mice serum increased. These results imply that PS4 impairs kidney function in mice. PS4 is obtained from Pro-parasporin-4 (ProPS4) by processing, and ProPS4 is produced by recombinant Escherichia coli as the inclusion body. The inclusion body of ProPS4 can be solubilized in a weak acid solution and activated by pepsin, implying that it would be solubilized and activated in the stomach of mammals after oral administration. Thus, the influence of the oral administration of it by C57BL/6J mice was examined. Although ProPS4 was activated to PS4 in the mouse digestive tract, any serious health hazard was not observed and there was no significant difference in body weight change. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt toxin; parasporin; mouse; kidney Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt toxin; parasporin; mouse; kidney
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Okumura, S.; Koga, H.; Inouye, K.; Mizuki, E. Toxicity of Parasporin-4 and Health Effects of Pro-parasporin-4 Diet in Mice. Toxins 2014, 6, 2115-2126.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top