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Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1873-1881; doi:10.3390/toxins6061873

Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes

1
Laboratory of Venoms and Toxins, Pasteur Institute of Morocco, 1 Place Louis Pasteur, Casablanca 20360, Morocco
2
Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohamed V-Souissi, Rabat 6203, Morocco
3
Laboratory of Venoms and Therapeutic Molecules, Pasteur Institute of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 13 Place Pasteur, BP74, Tunis 1002, Tunisia
4
Laboratory INSERM UMR 1097, University of Aix-Marseille, 163, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Avenue de Luminy, B√Ętiment TPR2, Case 939, Marseille 13288, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD50 values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD50 values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD50 values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the nature of toxins, might be attributed to the rich composition of high molecular weight enzymes in the case of viper venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: scorpion; snake; venoms; animal toxins; lethal activity; toxicity scorpion; snake; venoms; animal toxins; lethal activity; toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oukkache, N.; Jaoudi, R.E.; Ghalim, N.; Chgoury, F.; Bouhaouala, B.; Mdaghri, N.E.; Sabatier, J.-M. Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes. Toxins 2014, 6, 1873-1881.

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