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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3471-3487; doi:10.3390/toxins6123471

The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes

1
Department of Applied Life Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan
2
Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Research Center of Genetic Information, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan
4
Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Oshima-gun, Kagoshima 894-1531, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
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Abstract

The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene. View Full-Text
Keywords: group IIE phospholipase A2; venom; evolution; gene cluster; comparative genomics group IIE phospholipase A2; venom; evolution; gene cluster; comparative genomics
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Yamaguchi, K.; Chijiwa, T.; Ikeda, N.; Shibata, H.; Fukumaki, Y.; Oda-Ueda, N.; Hattori, S.; Ohno, M. The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes. Toxins 2014, 6, 3471-3487.

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