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Toxins 2014, 6(1), 96-107; doi:10.3390/toxins6010096

Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Method for Palytoxin Detection Based on Na+,K+-ATPase Affinity

Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Palytoxin (PLTX), produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Ostreopsis was first discovered, isolated, and purified from zoanthids belonging to the genus Palythoa. The detection of this toxin in contaminated shellfish is essential for human health preservation. A broad range of studies indicate that mammalian Na+,K+-ATPase is a high affinity cellular receptor for PLTX. The toxin converts the pump into an open channel that stimulates sodium influx and potassium efflux. In this work we develop a detection method for PLTX based on its binding to the Na+,K+-ATPase. The method was developed by using the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to monitor biomolecular reactions. This technique does not require any labeling of components. The interaction of PLTX over immobilized Na+,K+-ATPase is quantified by injecting different concentrations of toxin in the biosensor and checking the binding rate constant (kobs). From the representation of kobs versus PLTX concentration, the kinetic equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the PLTX-Na+,K+-ATPase association can be calculated. The value of this constant is KD = 6.38 × 10−7 ± 6.67 × 10−8 M PLTX. In this way the PLTX-Na+,K+-ATPase association was used as a suitable method for determination of the toxin concentration in a sample. This method represents a new and useful approach to easily detect the presence of PLTX-like compounds in marine products using the mechanism of action of these toxins and in this way reduce the use of other more expensive and animal based methods.
Keywords: palytoxin; Na+,K+-ATPase; surface plasmon resonance biosensor; Ostreopsis siamensis palytoxin; Na+,K+-ATPase; surface plasmon resonance biosensor; Ostreopsis siamensis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Alfonso, A.; Pazos, M.-J.; Fernández-Araujo, A.; Tobio, A.; Alfonso, C.; Vieytes, M.R.; Botana, L.M. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Method for Palytoxin Detection Based on Na+,K+-ATPase Affinity. Toxins 2014, 6, 96-107.

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