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Toxins 2014, 6(1), 66-80; doi:10.3390/toxins6010066
Article

Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit?

1,* , 2
 and 3
1 Plaza Infectious Disease and St. Luke's Hospital, 4320 Wornall Road, Suite 440, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA 2 Citrus Heights, CA 95610, USA 3 RealTime Laboratories, Carrollton, TX 75010, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
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Abstract

It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept.
Keywords: mycotoxin; biofilm; rhinosinusitis; chronic fatigue syndrome mycotoxin; biofilm; rhinosinusitis; chronic fatigue syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brewer, J.H.; Thrasher, J.D.; Hooper, D. Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit? Toxins 2014, 6, 66-80.

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