Next Article in Journal
Update on Staphylococcal Superantigen-Induced Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Interventions
Previous Article in Journal
Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Post-Extraction Stability Assessment of the Euglenoid Toxin Euglenophycin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Limited Stability of Microcystins in Oligopeptide Compositions of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria): Implications in the Definition of Chemotypes
Toxins 2013, 5(9), 1597-1628; doi:10.3390/toxins5091597
Article

Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources

1,* , 2
,
3,4
,
4
 and
3
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [258 KB, uploaded 24 September 2013]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Some species produce potent toxins that can sicken or kill people, domestic animals, and wildlife. Dogs are particularly vulnerable to cyanotoxin poisoning because of their tendency to swim in and drink contaminated water during algal blooms or to ingestalgal mats.. Here, we summarize reports of suspected or confirmed canine cyanotoxin poisonings in the U.S. from three sources: (1) The Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) of the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); (2) Retrospective case files from a large, regional veterinary hospital in California; and (3) Publicly available scientific and medical manuscripts; written media; and web-based reports from pet owners, veterinarians, and other individuals. We identified 231 discreet cyanobacteria harmful algal bloom (cyanoHAB) events and 368 cases of cyanotoxin poisoning associated with dogs throughout the U.S. between the late 1920s and 2012. The canine cyanotoxin poisoning events reviewed here likely represent a small fraction of cases that occur throughout the U.S. each year.
Keywords: anatoxin; dog; canine; cyanotoxin; hepatotoxin; microcystin; neurotoxin poisoning; cyanobacteria; blue-green algae anatoxin; dog; canine; cyanotoxin; hepatotoxin; microcystin; neurotoxin poisoning; cyanobacteria; blue-green algae
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Backer, L.C.; Landsberg, J.H.; Miller, M.; Keel, K.; Taylor, T.K. Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources. Toxins 2013, 5, 1597-1628.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert