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Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, MS F-60, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA
Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 Eighth Avenue SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, 1451 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2013; in revised form: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanotoxins
Abstract: Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Some species produce potent toxins that can sicken or kill people, domestic animals, and wildlife. Dogs are particularly vulnerable to cyanotoxin poisoning because of their tendency to swim in and drink contaminated water during algal blooms or to ingestalgal mats.. Here, we summarize reports of suspected or confirmed canine cyanotoxin poisonings in the U.S. from three sources: (1) The Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) of the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); (2) Retrospective case files from a large, regional veterinary hospital in California; and (3) Publicly available scientific and medical manuscripts; written media; and web-based reports from pet owners, veterinarians, and other individuals. We identified 231 discreet cyanobacteria harmful algal bloom (cyanoHAB) events and 368 cases of cyanotoxin poisoning associated with dogs throughout the U.S. between the late 1920s and 2012. The canine cyanotoxin poisoning events reviewed here likely represent a small fraction of cases that occur throughout the U.S. each year.
Keywords: anatoxin; dog; canine; cyanotoxin; hepatotoxin; microcystin; neurotoxin poisoning; cyanobacteria; blue-green algae
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Backer, L.C.; Landsberg, J.H.; Miller, M.; Keel, K.; Taylor, T.K. Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources. Toxins 2013, 5, 1597-1628.
Backer LC, Landsberg JH, Miller M, Keel K, Taylor TK. Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources. Toxins. 2013; 5(9):1597-1628.
Backer, Lorraine C.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Miller, Melissa; Keel, Kevin; Taylor, Tegwin K. 2013. "Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources." Toxins 5, no. 9: 1597-1628.