Toxins 2013, 5(9), 1574-1586; doi:10.3390/toxins5091574
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Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin

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Received: 29 July 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin (CIT) is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii) and Aspergillus Section Nigri (Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis), mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species (Monascus purpureus, M. ruber) and Penicillium species (Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum). OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin (e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine) and animal origin (e.g., pork/poultry). CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin (e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices), food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin (e.g., cheese).
Keywords: ochratoxin A; citrinin; producers; microfungi; dietary sources; foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ostry, V.; Malir, F.; Ruprich, J. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins 2013, 5, 1574-1586.

AMA Style

Ostry V, Malir F, Ruprich J. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins. 2013; 5(9):1574-1586.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Ruprich, Jiri. 2013. "Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin." Toxins 5, no. 9: 1574-1586.

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