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Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin
Center for Health, Nutrition and Food, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Palackeho 3a, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin (CIT) is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii) and Aspergillus Section Nigri (Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis), mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species (Monascus purpureus, M. ruber) and Penicillium species (Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum). OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin (e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine) and animal origin (e.g., pork/poultry). CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin (e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices), food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin (e.g., cheese).
Keywords: ochratoxin A; citrinin; producers; microfungi; dietary sources; foods
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ostry, V.; Malir, F.; Ruprich, J. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins 2013, 5, 1574-1586.
Ostry V, Malir F, Ruprich J. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins. 2013; 5(9):1574-1586.
Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Ruprich, Jiri. 2013. "Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin." Toxins 5, no. 9: 1574-1586.