Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan
National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
QE Center Research and Development, Quality Assurance Division, Nisshin Seifun Group INC., Tsurugaoka, Fujimino, Saitama 356-8511, Japan
Faculty of Home Economics, Kyoritsu Women's University, Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0003, Japan
Department of Sociology, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, 5 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8581, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2013; in revised form: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Abstract: Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL) and ochratoxin A (OTA), respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile) and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods.
Keywords: dietary exposure; aflatoxin; ochratoxin A; rice; pasta; reduction
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Sakuma, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Furusawa, H.; Yoshinari, T.; Akashi, H.; Kawakami, H.; Saito, S.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan. Toxins 2013, 5, 1032-1042.
Sakuma H, Watanabe Y, Furusawa H, Yoshinari T, Akashi H, Kawakami H, Saito S, Sugita-Konishi Y. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):1032-1042.
Sakuma, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Akashi, Hajime; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko. 2013. "Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan." Toxins 5, no. 5: 1032-1042.