Toxins 2013, 5(5), 1032-1042; doi:10.3390/toxins5051032
Communication

Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan

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Received: 19 February 2013; in revised form: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL) and ochratoxin A (OTA), respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile) and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods.
Keywords: dietary exposure; aflatoxin; ochratoxin A; rice; pasta; reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakuma, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Furusawa, H.; Yoshinari, T.; Akashi, H.; Kawakami, H.; Saito, S.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan. Toxins 2013, 5, 1032-1042.

AMA Style

Sakuma H, Watanabe Y, Furusawa H, Yoshinari T, Akashi H, Kawakami H, Saito S, Sugita-Konishi Y. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):1032-1042.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakuma, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Akashi, Hajime; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko. 2013. "Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan." Toxins 5, no. 5: 1032-1042.

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