Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Venomous Secretions from Marine Snails of the Terebridae Family Target Acetylcholine Receptors
Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, Frankfurt D-60596, Germany
Biodiversity and Climate Research Center (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt D-60325, Germany
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt D-60325, Germany
Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, Göttingen D-37075, Germany
Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Leuven, Campus Gatshuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2012; in revised form: 13 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Abstract: Venoms from cone snails (Conidae) have been extensively studied during the last decades, but those from other members of the suborder Toxoglossa, such as of Terebridae and Turridae superfamilies attracted less interest so far. Here, we report the effects of venom and gland extracts from three species of the superfamily Terebridae. By 2-electrode voltage-clamp technique the gland extracts were tested on Xenopus oocytes expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of rat neuronal (α3β2, α3β4, α4β2, α4β4, α7) and muscle subtypes (α1β1γδ), and expressing potassium (Kv1.2 and Kv1.3) and sodium channels (Nav1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6). The extracts were shown to exhibit remarkably high inhibitory activities on almost all nAChRs tested, in particular on the α7 subtype suggesting the presence of peptides of the A-superfamily from the venom of Conus species. In contrast, no effects on the potassium and sodium channels tested were observed. The venoms of terebrid snails may offer an additional source of novel biologically active peptides.
Keywords: Terebridae venom; gland extracts; acetylcholine receptors; potassium channels; sodium channels
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kendel, Y.; Melaun, C.; Kurz, A.; Nicke, A.; Peigneur, S.; Tytgat, J.; Wunder, C.; Mebs, D.; Kauferstein, S. Venomous Secretions from Marine Snails of the Terebridae Family Target Acetylcholine Receptors. Toxins 2013, 5, 1043-1050.
Kendel Y, Melaun C, Kurz A, Nicke A, Peigneur S, Tytgat J, Wunder C, Mebs D, Kauferstein S. Venomous Secretions from Marine Snails of the Terebridae Family Target Acetylcholine Receptors. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):1043-1050.
Kendel, Yvonne; Melaun, Christian; Kurz, Alexander; Nicke, Annette; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Wunder, Cora; Mebs, Dietrich; Kauferstein, Silke. 2013. "Venomous Secretions from Marine Snails of the Terebridae Family Target Acetylcholine Receptors." Toxins 5, no. 5: 1043-1050.