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Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2366-2383; doi:10.3390/toxins5122366

Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors

1,* , 2
1 Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, The University of Memphis, 338 Robison Hall, 3825 Desoto Avenue, Memphis, TN 38152, USA 2 School of Food Science, Biotechnology and Development, Faculty of Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Athens 11855, Greece 3 Bioengineering Laboratory Core, Cellular and Biomolecular Engineering, CFD Research Corporation, 701 McMillian Way NW, Huntsville, AL 35806, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 29 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Toxin Detection)
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Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) utilize the principles of cell-based assays (CBAs) by employing living cells for detection of different analytes from environment, food, clinical, or other sources. For toxin detection, CBBs are emerging as unique alternatives to other analytical methods. The main advantage of using CBBs for probing biotoxins and toxic agents is that CBBs respond to the toxic exposures in the manner related to actual physiologic responses of the vulnerable subjects. The results obtained from CBBs are based on the toxin-cell interactions, and therefore, reveal functional information (such as mode of action, toxic potency, bioavailability, target tissue or organ, etc.) about the toxin. CBBs incorporate both prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic (yeast, invertebrate and vertebrate) cells. To create CBB devices, living cells are directly integrated onto the biosensor platform. The sensors report the cellular responses upon exposures to toxins and the resulting cellular signals are transduced by secondary transducers generating optical or electrical signals outputs followed by appropriate read-outs. Examples of the layout and operation of cellular biosensors for detection of selected biotoxins are summarized.
Keywords: biosensor; toxin; mycotoxins; marine toxins; botulinum toxins; cell-based sensors; cell-based assay; cytotoxicity biosensor; toxin; mycotoxins; marine toxins; botulinum toxins; cell-based sensors; cell-based assay; cytotoxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Banerjee, P.; Kintzios, S.; Prabhakarpandian, B. Biotoxin Detection Using Cell-Based Sensors. Toxins 2013, 5, 2366-2383.

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