Toxins 2012, 4(9), 633-642; doi:10.3390/toxins4090633
Article

Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR)

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Received: 14 July 2012; in revised form: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ricin and abrin are two of the most potent plant toxins known and may be easily obtained in high yield from the seeds using rather simple technology. As a result, both toxins are potent and available toxins for criminal or terrorist acts. However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more likely that crude extracts would be used by non-governmental perpetrators. Remaining plant-specific nucleic acids in these extracts allow the application of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and identification of abrin or ricin genomic material. Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the OmniMix HS bead PCR reagent mixture. Novel primers and hybridization probes were designed for detection on a SmartCycler instrument by using 5′-nuclease technology. The assay was thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity. Evaluation of the assay sensitivity by probit analysis demonstrated a 95% probability of detection at 3 genomes per reaction for ricin DNA and 1.2 genomes per reaction for abrin DNA. The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix.
Keywords: ricin; abrin; quantitative real-time PCR; simultaneous detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Felder, E.; Mossbrugger, I.; Lange, M.; Wölfel, R. Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR). Toxins 2012, 4, 633-642.

AMA Style

Felder E, Mossbrugger I, Lange M, Wölfel R. Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR). Toxins. 2012; 4(9):633-642.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Felder, Eva; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Lange, Mirko; Wölfel, Roman. 2012. "Simultaneous Detection of Ricin and Abrin DNA by Real-Time PCR (qPCR)." Toxins 4, no. 9: 633-642.

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