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Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
Received: 20 April 2011; in revised form: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shiga Toxin
Abstract: After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the Stx receptor Gb3 or other Stx binding sites, and it remains unknown how Stx cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and gain access to the systemic circulation. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal environment on Stx production and release, Stx interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and intracellular uptake, and toxin translocation into underlying tissues. Furthermore, it highlights gaps in understanding that need to be addressed by future research.
Keywords: Shiga toxin; human intestinal epithelium; regulation; intracellular transport; translocation
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Schüller, S. Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium. Toxins 2011, 3, 626-639.
Schüller S. Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium. Toxins. 2011; 3(6):626-639.
Schüller, Stephanie. 2011. "Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium." Toxins 3, no. 6: 626-639.