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Shiga Toxin: Expression, Distribution, and Its Role in the Environment
Toxins 2011, 3(6), 626-639; doi:10.3390/toxins3060626
Review

Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium

Received: 20 April 2011 / Revised: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shiga Toxin)
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Abstract

After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the Stx receptor Gb3 or other Stx binding sites, and it remains unknown how Stx cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and gain access to the systemic circulation. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal environment on Stx production and release, Stx interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and intracellular uptake, and toxin translocation into underlying tissues. Furthermore, it highlights gaps in understanding that need to be addressed by future research.
Keywords: Shiga toxin; human intestinal epithelium; regulation; intracellular transport; translocation Shiga toxin; human intestinal epithelium; regulation; intracellular transport; translocation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Schüller, S. Shiga Toxin Interaction with Human Intestinal Epithelium. Toxins 2011, 3, 626-639.

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