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Toxins 2011, 3(4), 356-368; doi:10.3390/toxins3040356
Review

Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

1,2,3,4,* , 1,2,3,4
 and 1,2,3,4,5
Received: 18 February 2011; in revised form: 16 March 2011 / Accepted: 16 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Microbiology of Bacterial Toxins)
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Abstract: Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.
Keywords: bacterial toxin; type III secretion system; eukaryotic cell cycle; NEDD8; ubiquitin; cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase bacterial toxin; type III secretion system; eukaryotic cell cycle; NEDD8; ubiquitin; cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Taieb, F.; Nougayrède, J.-P.; Oswald, E. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells. Toxins 2011, 3, 356-368.

AMA Style

Taieb F, Nougayrède J-P, Oswald E. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells. Toxins. 2011; 3(4):356-368.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric. 2011. "Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs): Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells." Toxins 3, no. 4: 356-368.


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