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Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Direcção Geral de Veterinária, Largo da Academia Nacional de Belas Artes, nº 2, 1249-105 Lisboa, Portugal
INRB, I.P., Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária, Serviço de Micologia, Estrada de Benfica 701, 1549-011 Lisboa, Portugal
UTL, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, CIISA-Pólo Universitário Rua Prof.Cid Santos, Alto da Ajuda, 1300-417 Lisboa, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2010; in revised form: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aflatoxins
Abstract: The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2%) in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%), ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9%) with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%). Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%), ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.
Keywords: aquaculture; fungi; fish feed; safety control
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Martins Almeida, I.F.; Martins, H.M.L.; Santos, S.M.O.; Freitas, M.S.; Nunes da Costa, J.M.G.; D´Almeida Bernardo, F.M. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxins 2011, 3, 163-171.
Martins Almeida IF, Martins HML, Santos SMO, Freitas MS, Nunes da Costa JMG, D´Almeida Bernardo FM. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxins. 2011; 3(3):163-171.
Martins Almeida, Inês Filipa; Martins, Hermínia Marina Lourdes; Santos, Sara Maria Oliveira; Freitas, Maria Suzana; Nunes da Costa, José Manuel Gaspar; D´Almeida Bernardo, Fernando Manuel. 2011. "Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)." Toxins 3, no. 3: 163-171.