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Toxins 2011, 3(3), 163-171; doi:10.3390/toxins3030163

Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

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Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aflatoxins)
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Abstract: The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2%) in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%), ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9%) with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%). Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%), ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.
Keywords: aquaculture; fungi; fish feed; safety control aquaculture; fungi; fish feed; safety control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins Almeida, I.F.; Martins, H.M.L.; Santos, S.M.O.; Freitas, M.S.; Nunes da Costa, J.M.G.; D´Almeida Bernardo, F.M. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxins 2011, 3, 163-171.

AMA Style

Martins Almeida IF, Martins HML, Santos SMO, Freitas MS, Nunes da Costa JMG, D´Almeida Bernardo FM. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxins. 2011; 3(3):163-171.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martins Almeida, Inês Filipa; Martins, Hermínia Marina Lourdes; Santos, Sara Maria Oliveira; Freitas, Maria Suzana; Nunes da Costa, José Manuel Gaspar; D´Almeida Bernardo, Fernando Manuel. 2011. "Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)." Toxins 3, no. 3: 163-171.

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