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Toxins 2011, 3(11), 1420-1432; doi:10.3390/toxins3111420

Pharmacological Aspects of Vipera xantina palestinae Venom

School of Pharmacy Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Vascular Matrix Biology, Frankfurt University Hospital, Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
Department of Biology, Temple University College of Science and Technology, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 3 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snake Venoms)
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In Israel, Vipera xantina palestinae (V.x.p.) is the most common venomous snake, accounting for several hundred cases of envenomation in humans and domestic animals every year, with a mortality rate of 0.5 to 2%. In this review we will briefly address the research developments relevant to our present understanding of the structure and function of V.x.p. venom with emphasis on venom disintegrins. Venom proteomics indicated the presence of four families of pharmacologically active compounds: (i) neurotoxins; (ii) hemorrhagins; (iii) angioneurin growth factors; and (iv) different types of integrin inhibitors. Viperistatin, a α1β1selective KTS disintegrin and VP12, a α2β1 selective C-type lectin were discovered. These snake venom proteins represent promising tools for research and development of novel collagen receptor selective drugs. These discoveries are also relevant for future improvement of antivenom therapy towards V.x.p. envenomation.
Keywords: Vipera xantina palestinae; venom; neurotoxin; hemorrhagin; integrin inhibitors; antivenom Vipera xantina palestinae; venom; neurotoxin; hemorrhagin; integrin inhibitors; antivenom
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Momic, T.; Arlinghaus, F.T.; Arien-Zakay, H.; Katzhendler, J.; Eble, J.A.; Marcinkiewicz, C.; Lazarovici, P. Pharmacological Aspects of Vipera xantina palestinae Venom. Toxins 2011, 3, 1420-1432.

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