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Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained
Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok-noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok-noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
Graduate Program, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road , Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok-noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
Department of Applied Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080 8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2011; in revised form: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 18 October 2011
Abstract: A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000–2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992–1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin (TTX); puffer fish; Lagocephalus spp.; Tetraodon spp.; Arothron spp.; Thailand; Gulf of Siam; Andaman sea; liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); mouse bioassay; mouse lethal unit(s)
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Chulanetra, M.; Sookrung, N.; Srimanote, P.; Indrawattana, N.; Thanongsaksrikul, J.; Sakolvaree, Y.; Chongsa-Nguan, M.; Kurazono, H.; Chaicumpa, W. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained. Toxins 2011, 3, 1249-1262.
Chulanetra M, Sookrung N, Srimanote P, Indrawattana N, Thanongsaksrikul J, Sakolvaree Y, Chongsa-Nguan M, Kurazono H, Chaicumpa W. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained. Toxins. 2011; 3(10):1249-1262.
Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen. 2011. "Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained." Toxins 3, no. 10: 1249-1262.