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Toxins 2011, 3(10), 1249-1262; doi:10.3390/toxins3101249
Article

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained

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Received: 4 August 2011; in revised form: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 18 October 2011
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Abstract: A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000–2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992–1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin (TTX); puffer fish; Lagocephalus spp.; Tetraodon spp.; Arothron spp.; Thailand; Gulf of Siam; Andaman sea; liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); mouse bioassay; mouse lethal unit(s) tetrodotoxin (TTX); puffer fish; Lagocephalus spp.; Tetraodon spp.; Arothron spp.; Thailand; Gulf of Siam; Andaman sea; liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); mouse bioassay; mouse lethal unit(s)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chulanetra, M.; Sookrung, N.; Srimanote, P.; Indrawattana, N.; Thanongsaksrikul, J.; Sakolvaree, Y.; Chongsa-Nguan, M.; Kurazono, H.; Chaicumpa, W. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained. Toxins 2011, 3, 1249-1262.

AMA Style

Chulanetra M, Sookrung N, Srimanote P, Indrawattana N, Thanongsaksrikul J, Sakolvaree Y, Chongsa-Nguan M, Kurazono H, Chaicumpa W. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained. Toxins. 2011; 3(10):1249-1262.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen. 2011. "Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained." Toxins 3, no. 10: 1249-1262.


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