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Toxins 2010, 2(9), 2289-2332; doi:10.3390/toxins2092289
Review

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

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Received: 12 August 2010; in revised form: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 20 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxicity of Natural Products)
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Abstract: Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.
Keywords: toxin; natural; environmental; exposure; processing; cooking; food toxin; natural; environmental; exposure; processing; cooking; food
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dolan, L.C.; Matulka, R.A.; Burdock, G.A. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins. Toxins 2010, 2, 2289-2332.

AMA Style

Dolan LC, Matulka RA, Burdock GA. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins. Toxins. 2010; 2(9):2289-2332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A. 2010. "Naturally Occurring Food Toxins." Toxins 2, no. 9: 2289-2332.



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