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Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management
Natural Products Utilization, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, P. O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2010; in revised form: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 26 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Abstract: Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed.
Keywords: algicide; fungicide; herbicide; insecticide; molluscicide; pesticide
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MDPI and ACS Style
Duke, S.O.; Cantrell, C.L.; Meepagala, K.M.; Wedge, D.E.; Tabanca, N.; Schrader, K.K. Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management. Toxins 2010, 2, 1943-1962.
Duke SO, Cantrell CL, Meepagala KM, Wedge DE, Tabanca N, Schrader KK. Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management. Toxins. 2010; 2(8):1943-1962.
Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K. 2010. "Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management." Toxins 2, no. 8: 1943-1962.