Next Article in Journal
Comparative Study of Various Immune Parameters in Three Bivalve Species during a Natural Bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Santa Catarina Island, Brazil
Next Article in Special Issue
Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs): Biogenesis and Function
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Host-Toxin Interactions Involving EspC and Pet, Two Serine Protease Autotransporters of the Enterobacteriaceae
Toxins 2010, 2(5), 1148-1165; doi:10.3390/toxins2051148

Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

Received: 1 April 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Toxins as Proteases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [525 KB, uploaded 25 May 2010]   |   Browse Figures


Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs). The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.
Keywords: exfoliative toxin; epidermolytic toxin; Staphylococcus aureus; staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome; bullous impetigo exfoliative toxin; epidermolytic toxin; Staphylococcus aureus; staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome; bullous impetigo
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Bukowski, M.; Wladyka, B.; Dubin, G. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Toxins 2010, 2, 1148-1165.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert