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Toxins 2018, 10(9), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090365

Venomous Arachnid Diagnostic Assays, Lessons from Past Attempts

1
Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, UFMG, Belo Horizonte 31270901, Brazil
2
Colégio Técnico (COLTEC), UFMG, Belo Horizonte 31270901, Brazil
3
Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte 30510010, Brazil
4
Sys2Diag UMR 9005 CNRS Alcediag, 34000 Montpellier, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1345 KB, uploaded 10 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Diagnostic tests for arachnid accidents remain unavailable for patients and clinicians. Together with snakes, these accidents are still a global medical concern, and are recognized as neglected tropical issues. Due to arachnid toxins’ fast mechanism of action, quick detection and quantification of venom is required to accelerate treatment decisions, rationalize therapy, and reduce costs and patient risks. This review aims to understand the current limitations for arachnid venom identification and quantification in biological samples. We benchmarked the already existing initiatives regarding test requirements (sample or biomarkers of choice), performances (time, detection limit, sensitivity and specificity) and their validation (on animal models or on samples from envenomed humans). Our analysis outlines unmet needs for improving diagnosis and consequently treatment of arachnid accidents. Hence, based on lessons from past attempts, we propose a road map for raising best practice guidelines, leading to recommendations for future progress in the development of arachnid diagnostic assays. View Full-Text
Keywords: arachnids; diagnosis; envenomation; spiders and scorpions; antivenom arachnids; diagnosis; envenomation; spiders and scorpions; antivenom
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Dias-Lopes, C.; Paiva, A.L.; Guerra-Duarte, C.; Molina, F.; Felicori, L. Venomous Arachnid Diagnostic Assays, Lessons from Past Attempts. Toxins 2018, 10, 365.

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