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Toxins 2018, 10(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10080324

Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
2
Laboratorio CIFGA S.A., Plaza Santo Domingo 20-5°, 27001 Lugo, Spain
3
Hospital Veterinario Universitario Rof Codina, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
4
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Outreach to Prevention of Aquatic Toxin Exposure)
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Abstract

Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web. These toxins usually reach human consumers by ingestion of contaminated seafood, although other exposure routes like inhalation or contact have also been reported and may cause serious illness. This review shows the current data regarding the symptoms of acute intoxication for several toxin classes, including paralytic toxins, amnesic toxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, tetrodotoxins, diarrheic toxins, azaspiracids and palytoxins. The information available about chronic toxicity and relative potency of different analogs within a toxin class are also reported. The gaps of toxicological knowledge that should be studied to improve human health protection are discussed. In general, gathering of epidemiological data in humans, chronic toxicity studies and exploring relative potency by oral administration are critical to minimize human health risks related to these toxin classes in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; toxicity equivalency factor; intoxication; biotoxin acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; toxicity equivalency factor; intoxication; biotoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Vilariño, N.; Louzao, M.C.; Abal, P.; Cagide, E.; Carrera, C.; Vieytes, M.R.; Botana, L.M. Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection. Toxins 2018, 10, 324.

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