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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070283

Multi-Toxin Occurrences in Ten French Water Resource Reservoirs

1
Limnologie sarl, 16 rue Paul Langevin, 35200 Rennes, France
2
German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin, Germany
3
Veolia Water, 30 rue Madeleine Vionnet, 93300 Aubervilliers, France
4
Veolia Recherche & Innovation, Chemin de la Digue, 78603 Maisons-Laffitte, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
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Abstract

Cyanobacteria are known to produce a wide array of metabolites, including various classes of toxins. Among these, hepatotoxins (Microcystins), neurotoxins (Anatoxin-A and PSP toxins) or cytotoxins (Cylindrospermopsins) have been subjected to numerous, individual studies during the past twenty years. Reports of toxins co-occurrences, however, remain scarce in the literature. The present work is an inventory of cyanobacteria with a particular focus on Nostocales and their associated toxin classes from 2007 to 2010 in ten lakes used for drinking water production in France. The results show that potential multiple toxin producing species are commonly encountered in cyanobacteria populations. Individual toxin classes were detected in 75% of all samples. Toxin co-occurrences appeared in 40% of samples as two- or three-toxin combinations (with 35% for the microcystins–anatoxin combination), whereas four-toxin class combinations only appeared in 1% of samples. Toxin co-occurrences could be partially correlated to species composition and water temperature. Peak concentrations however could never be observed simultaneously and followed distinct, asymmetrical distribution patterns. As observations are the key for preventive management and risk assessment, these results indicate that water monitoring should search for all four toxin classes simultaneously instead of focusing on the most frequent toxins, i.e., microcystins. View Full-Text
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; anatoxin-a; PSP toxins; microcystins; cyanobacteria; Nostocales; drinking water cylindrospermopsin; anatoxin-a; PSP toxins; microcystins; cyanobacteria; Nostocales; drinking water
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pitois, F.; Fastner, J.; Pagotto, C.; Dechesne, M. Multi-Toxin Occurrences in Ten French Water Resource Reservoirs. Toxins 2018, 10, 283.

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