Next Article in Journal
Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Macrophage IL-1β Production by Activating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/NF-κ/MAPK Cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome Was Not Activated
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Warming and Nutrients on Algae Production and Microcystins in Seston from the Iconic Lake Lesser Prespa, Greece
Previous Article in Journal
Analysing the Structural Effect of Point Mutations of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) on Lu/BCAM Adhesion Glycoprotein Association
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mitigating Toxic Planktonic Cyanobacterial Blooms in Aquatic Ecosystems Facing Increasing Anthropogenic and Climatic Pressures
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030123

Warming Affects Growth Rates and Microcystin Production in Tropical Bloom-Forming Microcystis Strains

1
Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University, Hochiminh City, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, 700000 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
3
Hochiminh City University of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hochiminh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, 700000 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
4
National Breeding Center for Southern Marine Aquaculture, 167 Thuy Van Street, Vung Tau Town, Ba Ria 790000, Vung Tau Province, Vietnam
5
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [5453 KB, uploaded 14 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC) production in tropical Microcystis strains. To this end, six Microcystis strains were isolated from different water bodies in Southern Vietnam. They were grown in triplicate at 27 °C (low), 31 °C (medium), 35 °C (high) and 37 °C (extreme). Chlorophyll-a-, particle- and MC concentrations as well as dry-weights were determined. All strains yielded higher biomass in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and dry-weight at 31 °C compared to 27 °C and then either stabilised, slightly increased or declined with higher temperature. Five strains easily grew at 37 °C but one could not survive at 37 °C. When temperature was increased from 27 °C to 37 °C total MC concentration decreased by 35% in strains with MC-LR as the dominant variant and by 94% in strains with MC-RR. MC quota expressed per particle, per unit chlorophyll-a and per unit dry-weight significantly declined with higher temperatures. This study shows that warming can prompt the growth of some tropical Microcystis strains but that these strains become less toxic. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell quota; climate change; cyanobacterial blooms; cyanotoxins; Mekong delta; Vietnam cell quota; climate change; cyanobacterial blooms; cyanotoxins; Mekong delta; Vietnam
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bui, T.; Dao, T.-S.; Vo, T.-G.; Lürling, M. Warming Affects Growth Rates and Microcystin Production in Tropical Bloom-Forming Microcystis Strains. Toxins 2018, 10, 123.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top