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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 42; doi:10.3390/toxins10010042

Comparative Response of the Hepatic Transcriptomes of Domesticated and Wild Turkey to Aflatoxin B1

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
University of Minnesota Informatics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, College of Agriculture, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1405 KB, uploaded 13 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) poses a significant risk to poultry, which are highly susceptible to its hepatotoxic effects. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive, whereas wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are more resistant. AFB1 toxicity entails bioactivation by hepatic cytochrome P450s to the electrophilic exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Domesticated turkeys lack functional hepatic GST-mediated detoxification of AFBO, and this is largely responsible for the differences in resistance between turkey types. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey livers by AFB1, and to contrast the response of domesticated (susceptible) and wild (more resistant) birds. Gene expression responses to AFB1 were examined using RNA-sequencing. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatment groups and between turkey types. Expression analysis identified 4621 genes with significant differential expression (DE) in AFB1-treated birds compared to controls. Characterization of DE transcripts revealed genes dis-regulated in response to toxic insult with significant association of Phase I and Phase II genes and others important in cellular regulation, modulation of apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Constitutive expression of GSTA3 was significantly higher in wild birds and was significantly higher in AFB1-treated birds when compared to controls for both genetic groups. This pattern was also observed by qRT-PCR in other wild and domesticated turkey strains. Results of this study emphasize the differential response of these genetically distinct birds, and identify genes and pathways that are differentially altered in aflatoxicosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; domesticated turkey; wild turkey; liver; RNA-seq; differential expression; Key Contribution; Results of this study support the hypothesis that the greater ability of wild turkeys to detoxify AFB1 is related to higher constitutive expression of GSTA3 coupled with an inherited (genetic) difference in functional expression in domesticated birds. Key differences in GSTA3 expression between the Eastern wild and domesticated turkeys is not unique to these genetic lines but is a broader phenomenon indicating lower fitness in domesticated birds. Results of RNA-seq analysis emphasize the differential response of these genetically distinct birds, demonstrating significant differences in expression of Phase I and Phase II genes and in genes important in toxic response. aflatoxin B1; domesticated turkey; wild turkey; liver; RNA-seq; differential expression; Key Contribution; Results of this study support the hypothesis that the greater ability of wild turkeys to detoxify AFB1 is related to higher constitutive expression of GSTA3 coupled with an inherited (genetic) difference in functional expression in domesticated birds. Key differences in GSTA3 expression between the Eastern wild and domesticated turkeys is not unique to these genetic lines but is a broader phenomenon indicating lower fitness in domesticated birds. Results of RNA-seq analysis emphasize the differential response of these genetically distinct birds, demonstrating significant differences in expression of Phase I and Phase II genes and in genes important in toxic response.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reed, K.M.; Mendoza, K.M.; Abrahante, J.E.; Coulombe, R.A. Comparative Response of the Hepatic Transcriptomes of Domesticated and Wild Turkey to Aflatoxin B1. Toxins 2018, 10, 42.

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