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Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats

1
Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
2
“MTA-KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain” Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
3
Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Meat Science, National Agricultural Research Center, 2053 Herceghalom, Hungary
4
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, 2013 Gödöllő, Hungary
5
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

(1) Background and (2) Methods: A 14-day in vivo, multitoxic (pure mycotoxins) rat experiment was conducted with zearalenone (ZEA; 15 μg/animal/day), deoxynivalenol (DON; 30 μg/animal/day) and fumonisin B1 (FB1; 150 μg/animal/day), as individual mycotoxins, binary (FD, FZ and DZ) and ternary combinations (FDZ), via gavage in 1 mL water boluses. (3) Results: Body weight was unaffected, while liver (ZEA↑ vs. DON) and kidney weight (ZEA↑ vs. FDZ) increased. Hepatocellular membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs) referred to ceramide synthesis disturbance (C20:0, C22:0), and decreased unsaturation (C22:5 n3 and unsat. index), mainly induced by DON and to a lesser extent by ZEA. The DON-FB1 interaction was additive on C20:0 in liver lipids. In renal phospholipids, ZEA had the strongest effect on the FA profile, affecting the saturated (C18:0) and many n6 FAs; ZEA was in an antagonistic relationship with FB1 (C18:0) or DON (C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9). Hepatic oxidative stress was the most expressed in FD (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase), while the nephrotoxic effect was further supported by lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in the DON treatment. (4) Conclusions: In vivo study results refer to multiple mycotoxin interactions on membrane FAs, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation compounds, needing further testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: rat; liver; kidney; fusariotoxins; multitoxic effects; phospholipids rat; liver; kidney; fusariotoxins; multitoxic effects; phospholipids
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Szabó, A.; Szabó-Fodor, J.; Fébel, H.; Mézes, M.; Balogh, K.; Bázár, G.; Kocsó, D.; Ali, O.; Kovács, M. Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats. Toxins 2018, 10, 4.

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