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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010036

Sea Anemones: Quiet Achievers in the Field of Peptide Toxins

1
School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
2
Institute of Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
3
Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
4
Medicinal Chemistry, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2017 Venoms to Drugs Conference)
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Abstract

Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. This is surprising given the success of some anemone peptides that have been tested, such as the potassium channel blocker from Stichodactyla helianthus known as ShK. An analogue of this peptide, ShK-186, which is now known as dalazatide, has successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials and is about to enter Phase 2 trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the impediments to the exploitation of sea anemone toxins in the pharmaceutical industry has been the difficulty associated with their high-throughput discovery and isolation. Recent developments in multiple ‘omic’ technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with advanced bioinformatics, have opened the way for large-scale discovery of novel sea anemone toxins from a range of species. Many of these toxins will be useful pharmacological tools and some will hopefully prove to be valuable therapeutic leads. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea anemone; peptide; ShK; potassium channel; autoimmune disease; genomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; evolution sea anemone; peptide; ShK; potassium channel; autoimmune disease; genomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; evolution
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J. Prentis, P.; Pavasovic, A.; S. Norton, R. Sea Anemones: Quiet Achievers in the Field of Peptide Toxins. Toxins 2018, 10, 36.

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