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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 990; doi:10.3390/nu9090990

Tracking Dietary Patterns over 20 Years from Childhood through Adolescence into Young Adulthood: The Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study

1
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
2
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N5B2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8–15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-h recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005, and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed”, and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (β = 0.30, p < 0.001) in males. The remaining DPs showed poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (p < 0.001), while “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Movassagh, E.Z.; Baxter-Jones, A.D.G.; Kontulainen, S.; Whiting, S.J.; Vatanparast, H. Tracking Dietary Patterns over 20 Years from Childhood through Adolescence into Young Adulthood: The Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 990.

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