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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 937; doi:10.3390/nu9090937

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Induced Macrophages Activation through GPR120-Mediated Raf-ERK1/2-IKKβ-NF-κB p65 Signaling Pathways

Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457, China
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Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the immunomodulatory effect and molecular mechanisms of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a typical kind of n-3PUFAs) on RAW264.7 cells. Methods: A variety of research methods, including the RAW264.7 cells culture, cell proliferation assays, morphologic observations, measurements of NO production, cytokine assays, nuclear protein extractions, western blot analyses and NF-κB p65 immunofluorescence assays were used in this study. Results: The results showed that EPA could increase the proliferation index and enhance the release of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Western blotting results revealed that the protein level of GPR120 increased significantly in RAW264.7 cells after EPA treatment. Meanwhile, EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of Raf, which may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 may then promote IKKβ in endochylema and translocate the NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus, thus regulating the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines. Conclusions: EPA (0.6–3.0 μmol) activates RAW264.7 cells through GPR120-mediated Raf-ERK1/2-IKKβ-NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Eicosapentaenoic acid; immunomodulatory; NF-κB; RAW264.7 cells; Raf Eicosapentaenoic acid; immunomodulatory; NF-κB; RAW264.7 cells; Raf
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, L.; Song, S.; Niu, Y.; Meng, M.; Wang, C. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Induced Macrophages Activation through GPR120-Mediated Raf-ERK1/2-IKKβ-NF-κB p65 Signaling Pathways. Nutrients 2017, 9, 937.

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