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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 840; doi:10.3390/nu9080840

Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

1
Unilever R & D Vlaardingen, 3133 AT Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract

After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: trans fatty acid; industrial trans fat; partially hydrogenated vegetable oils; ruminant trans fat; dietary sources; national dietary survey; review trans fatty acid; industrial trans fat; partially hydrogenated vegetable oils; ruminant trans fat; dietary sources; national dietary survey; review
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Wanders, A.J.; Zock, P.L.; Brouwer, I.A. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2017, 9, 840.

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