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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 697; doi:10.3390/nu9070697

Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, 18012 Granada, Spain
3
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, c/Martín Fierro 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madrid Complutense University, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
7
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Faculty of Health Science, c/Doctor Pasteur s/n Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
8
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
9
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km 53, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
ANIBES (Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain).
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract

Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, n = 2009 (9–75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max−min) reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3–27.3 mg/day), selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14–265 µg/day), vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2–11,017 µg RE/day), retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0–10,881 µg/day), carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13–13,962 µg/day), vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7–55.2 mg α-TE/day) and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0–802.7 mg/day). The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%), vitamin A (60%), vitamin E (80%), vitamin C (36%) and selenium (25%). View Full-Text
Keywords: ANIBES study; trace elements; vitamins; misreporting; food intake ANIBES study; trace elements; vitamins; misreporting; food intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olza, J.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Gil, Á. Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 697.

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