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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 692; doi:10.3390/nu9070692

Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial

1
Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo 04032-020, Brazil
2
Department of Bioscience, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos 11015-020, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Abstract

This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc test were performed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. SaO2% reduced when comparing baseline vs. pre-exercise, post-exercise, and after recovery for all three groups. There was also a reduction of SaO2% in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for the hypoxia group and an increase was observed in pre-exercise vs. recovery for both supplementation groups, and between post-exercise and for the three groups studied. There was an increase of salivary flow in post-exercise vs. recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) decreased from baseline vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Glutamine group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) increased from post-exercise vs. after recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Reduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed from baseline vs. post-exercise and after recovery for the Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group; a lower concentration was observed in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise and recovery. TNF-α had a reduction from baseline vs. post-exercise for both supplementation groups, and a lower secretion between baseline vs. recovery, and pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Five hours of hypoxia and exercise did not change IgA. Carbohydrates, with greater efficiency than glutamine, induced anti-inflammatory responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: supplementation; carbohydrate; hypoxia; physical exercise; glutamine; high altitude; innate immune response; oral mucosal immunity supplementation; carbohydrate; hypoxia; physical exercise; glutamine; high altitude; innate immune response; oral mucosal immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caris, A.V.; Da Silva, E.T.; Dos Santos, S.A.; Tufik, S.; Dos Santos, R.V.T. Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 692.

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