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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 645; doi:10.3390/nu9070645

Topical Application of Trisodium Ascorbyl 6-Palmitate 2-Phosphate Actively Supplies Ascorbate to Skin Cells in an Ascorbate Transporter-Independent Manner

1
Department of Advanced Aging Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
2
Reserch & Development Division, Club Cosmetics Co., Ltd., Ikoma, Nara 630-0222, Japan
3
Functional Chemicals Division, Showa Denko K.K. Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8518, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Ascorbic acid (AA) possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound’s high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action. In contrast, torisodium ascorbyl 6-palmitate 2-phosphate (APPS) treatment significantly enhanced the cellular AA level in skin cells despite the presence of inhibitors. In ex vivo experiments, APPS treatment also increased the AA content in a human epidermis model. Interestingly, APPS was readily metabolized and converted to AA in keratinocyte lysates via an intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, APPS markedly repressed the intracellular superoxide generation and promoted viability associated with an enhanced AA level in Sod1-deficient skin cells. These findings indicate that APPS effectively restores the AA level and normalizes the redox balance in skin cells in an AA transporter-independent manner. Topical treatment of APPS is a beneficial strategy for supplying AA and improving the physiology of damaged skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascorbic acid; ascorbic acid transporter; ascorbic acid derivative; skin ascorbic acid; ascorbic acid transporter; ascorbic acid derivative; skin
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Shibuya, S.; Sakaguchi, I.; Ito, S.; Kato, E.; Watanabe, K.; Izuo, N.; Shimizu, T. Topical Application of Trisodium Ascorbyl 6-Palmitate 2-Phosphate Actively Supplies Ascorbate to Skin Cells in an Ascorbate Transporter-Independent Manner. Nutrients 2017, 9, 645.

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