Next Article in Journal
Impact of Virtual Touch Quantification in Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse for Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss in Chronic Liver Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 Cells Is Attenuated by Strawberry Extract through AMPK Activation
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 616; doi:10.3390/nu9060616

Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

1
Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 104, Taiwan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzu-Chi Medical Foundation, Taipei 231, Taiwan
5
School of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [383 KB, uploaded 16 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

The cause-effect relationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and osteoporosis has not been established in the general population. Thus, the current longitudinal study determined the role of IDA as a risk factor for osteoporosis by analyzing a large nationwide population-based sample. In a sample of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the 1998–2012. Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, patients with IDA (case group (n = 35,751)) and individuals without IDA (control group (n = 178,755)) were compared. Patients who were <20 years of age and who had pre-existing osteoporosis prior to the diagnosis of IDA were excluded. Each patient with IDA was age- and gender-matched to five individuals without IDA. The diagnoses of IDA and osteoporosis (coded using ICD-9CM) were further confirmed with blood test results and X-ray bone densitometry to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Osteoporosis occurred more often among patients with IDA compared to individuals without IDA (2.27% vs. 1.32%, p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that the risk for osteoporosis was significantly higher in the case than the control group (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.61–1.88) and remained similar after adjustment for covariates (adjusted HR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.67–1.97). Compared with individuals without IDA, the risk for osteoporosis was even higher for patients with IDA who received intravenous ferrum therapy (adjusted HR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.85–2.63). In contrast, the risk for osteoporosis was reduced for patients with IDA who received a blood transfusion (adjusted HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.20–1.80). As a predictor, prior IDA is a significant and independent risk factor for development of osteoporosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; osteoporosis; ferrum infusion; blood transfusion iron deficiency anemia; osteoporosis; ferrum infusion; blood transfusion
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, M.-L.; Chen, L.-R.; Tsao, H.-M.; Chen, K.-H. Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 616.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top