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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 484; doi:10.3390/nu9050484

The Effect of Dietary Glycemic Properties on Markers of Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal American Women: An Ancillary Study from a Multicenter Protein Supplementation Trial

1
Clinical Chemistry, University of Liège, place du 20-Août, Liège 7 B-4000, Belgium
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Yale University, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
3
Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, 358 Mansfield Road, Unit 1101, Storrs, CT 06269-1101, USA
4
Center on Aging, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
5
Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, 411 Lafayette Street, 5th Floor, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract

Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a whey protein supplement (PRO, n = 38) and a maltodextrin supplement (CHO, n = 46) on bone density to evaluate the impact of a calibrated increase in GI/GL on inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in a healthy aging population. Markers of inflammation, HOMA, body composition, and GI/GL (estimated from 3-day food records) were assessed at baseline and 18 months. By 18 months, the GL in the CHO group increased by 34%, 88.4 ± 5.2 → 118.5 ± 4.9 and did not change in the PRO group, 86.5 ± 4.1 → 82.0 ± 3.6 (p < 0.0001). Despite this change there were no differences in serum CRP, IL-6, or HOMA at 18 months between the two groups, nor were there significant associations between GL and inflammatory markers. However, trunk lean mass (p = 0.0375) and total lean mass (p = 0.038) were higher in the PRO group compared to the CHO group at 18 months There were also significant associations for GL and change in total fat mass (r = 0.3, p = 0.01), change in BMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.005), and change in the lean-to-fat mass ratio (r = −0.3, p = 0.002). Our data suggest that as dietary GL increases within the moderate range, there is no detectable change in markers of inflammation or insulin resistance, despite which there is a negative effect on body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycemic index; glycemic load; insulin resistance; body composition glycemic index; glycemic load; insulin resistance; body composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stojkovic, V.; Simpson, C.A.; Sullivan, R.R.; Cusano, A.M.; Kerstetter, J.E.; Kenny, A.M.; Insogna, K.L.; Bihuniak, J.D. The Effect of Dietary Glycemic Properties on Markers of Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal American Women: An Ancillary Study from a Multicenter Protein Supplementation Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 484.

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