The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery
AbstractBackground: Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. Methods: We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55–80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. Results: During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86–1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group versus the MedDiet + Nuts group. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first large randomized trial assessing the role of a MedDiet on the incidence of cataract surgery. Our results showed that the incidence of cataract surgery was similar in the MedDiet with EVOO, MedDiet with nuts, and low-fat diet groups. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether a MedDiet could have a preventive role in cataract surgery. View Full-Text
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García-Layana, A.; Ciufo, G.; Toledo, E.; Martínez-González, M.A.; Corella, D.; Fitó, M.; Estruch, R.; Gómez-Gracia, E.; Fiol, M.; Lapetra, J.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pintó, X.; Portillo, M.P.; Sorli, J.V.; Bulló, M.; Vinyoles, E.; Sala-Vila, A.; Ros, E.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Arós, F. The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery. Nutrients 2017, 9, 453.
García-Layana A, Ciufo G, Toledo E, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Fitó M, Estruch R, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Portillo MP, Sorli JV, Bulló M, Vinyoles E, Sala-Vila A, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Arós F. The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery. Nutrients. 2017; 9(5):453.Chicago/Turabian Style
García-Layana, Alfredo; Ciufo, Gianfranco; Toledo, Estefania; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Portillo, Maria P.; Sorli, José V.; Bulló, Mónica; Vinyoles, Ernest; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando. 2017. "The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery." Nutrients 9, no. 5: 453.
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