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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 438; doi:10.3390/nu9050438

Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults

1
Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
2
Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract

Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005–2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0–18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMI; dietary intake; fat; fatty acids; saturated fat; monounsaturated fat; polyunsaturated fat; dietary intake; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); What We Eat in America (WWEIA) BMI; dietary intake; fat; fatty acids; saturated fat; monounsaturated fat; polyunsaturated fat; dietary intake; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); What We Eat in America (WWEIA)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Raatz, S.K.; Conrad, Z.; Johnson, L.K.; Picklo, M.J.; Jahns, L. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 438.

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