Next Article in Journal
Are miRNA-103, miRNA-107 and miRNA-122 Involved in the Prevention of Liver Steatosis Induced by Resveratrol?
Previous Article in Journal
High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 359; doi:10.3390/nu9040359

Mechanisms of Iron Uptake from Ferric Phosphate Nanoparticles in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

1
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UQ, UK
2
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3
Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
4
Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1656 KB, uploaded 18 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Food fortification programs to reduce iron deficiency anemia require bioavailable forms of iron that do not cause adverse organoleptic effects. Rodent studies show that nano-sized ferric phosphate (NP-FePO4) is as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate, but there is controversy over the mechanism of absorption. We undertook in vitro studies to examine this using a Caco-2 cell model and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Supernatant iron concentrations increased inversely with pH, and iron uptake into Caco-2 cells was 2–3 fold higher when NP-FePO4 was digested at pH 1 compared to pH 2. The size and distribution of NP-FePO4 particles during GI digestion was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The d50 of the particle distribution was 413 nm. Using disc centrifugal sedimentation, a high degree of agglomeration in NP-FePO4 following simulated GI digestion was observed, with only 20% of the particles ≤1000 nm. In Caco-2 cells, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and endocytosis inhibitors demonstrated that NP-FePO4 was mainly absorbed via DMT1. Small particles may be absorbed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and micropinocytosis. These findings should be considered when assessing the potential of iron nanoparticles for food fortification. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano iron; NP-FePO4; bioavailability; Caco-2 cells; simulated gastrointestinal digestion; DMT1; endocytosis nano iron; NP-FePO4; bioavailability; Caco-2 cells; simulated gastrointestinal digestion; DMT1; endocytosis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perfecto, A.; Elgy, C.; Valsami-Jones, E.; Sharp, P.; Hilty, F.; Fairweather-Tait, S. Mechanisms of Iron Uptake from Ferric Phosphate Nanoparticles in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Nutrients 2017, 9, 359.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top