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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 325; doi:10.3390/nu9040325

Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

1
Department of Internal medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
2
Department of Hygiene, Institute for Public Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
3
Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Beograd 11000, Serbia
4
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
5
Faculty of Hotel Management and Tourism, Department of Natural Sciences and medicine, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
6
Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
7
Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Physiology, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract

(1) Background: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were involved in a prospective, randomized trial of a 12 week supplementation with fish oil (group I), fish oil with primrose evening oil (group II), or with no supplementation (group III). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were done at the beginning and at the end of the study; (3) Results: The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28 score), number of tender joints and visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased notably after supplementation in groups I and II (p < 0.001). In plasma phospholipids the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio declined from 15.47 ± 5.51 to 10.62 ± 5.07 (p = 0.005), and from 18.15 ± 5.04 to 13.50 ± 4.81 (p = 0.005) in groups I and II respectively. The combination of n-3 PUFA and GLA (group II) increased ɤ-linolenic acid (0.00 ± 0.00 to 0.13 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), which was undetectable in all groups before the treatments; (4) Conclusion: Daily supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with GLA exerted significant clinical benefits and certain changes in disease activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 PUFA; ɤ-linolenic acid; rheumatoid arthritis n-3 PUFA; ɤ-linolenic acid; rheumatoid arthritis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Veselinovic, M.; Vasiljevic, D.; Vucic, V.; Arsic, A.; Petrovic, S.; Tomic-Lucic, A.; Savic, M.; Zivanovic, S.; Stojic, V.; Jakovljevic, V. Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 325.

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