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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 276; doi:10.3390/nu9030276

Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
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Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Abstract

Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1–3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee consumption; coffee polyphenol intake; cardiovascular risk factors; representative sample coffee consumption; coffee polyphenol intake; cardiovascular risk factors; representative sample
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Miranda, A.M.; Steluti, J.; Fisberg, R.M.; Marchioni, D.M. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 276.

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