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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 252; doi:10.3390/nu9030252

Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

1
School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009, Australia
2
School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract

Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59) provided milk samples (n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptin; adiponectin; maternal body composition; percentage fat mass; lactation; human milk; breastfeeding; appetite hormones; macronutrients; protein; lactose leptin; adiponectin; maternal body composition; percentage fat mass; lactation; human milk; breastfeeding; appetite hormones; macronutrients; protein; lactose
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kugananthan, S.; Gridneva, Z.; Lai, C.T.; Hepworth, A.R.; Mark, P.J.; Kakulas, F.; Geddes, D.T. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk. Nutrients 2017, 9, 252.

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